Mazandaran (Persian مازندران) is a Caspian province in the north of Iran. Located on the Southern coast of the Caspian Sea, it is bordered clockwise by Golestan, Semnan and Tehran provinces (together forming Greater Mazandaran, separated from Mazandaran respectively in 1997, 1976 and 1960). The provinces of Qazvin and Gilan lie to the west.
It is one of the most densely populated provinces in Iran and has diverse natural resources, such as large reservoirs of Caspian oil & natural gas.
The province’s four largest counties are Sari, Behshahr, Babol, Amol, and Qaemshahr.
Mazanderan diverse nature and climate include plains, prairies, forests and jungles ranges from the sandy beaches to the rugged and snowcapped Elburz sierra with the highest peak & volcano throughout Middle-East and Western Asia, Mount Damavand which at the narrowest point narrows to 5 miles and culminates less than 2 thousand meters from the coast.
A major producer of farmed fish in Iran and the neighbor regions, Mazandaran is the leading economic base of agriculture & dish productions, but also relies on the Tourism industry, as many tourists enjoy visiting the area. The area also leads in biotechnology and civil engineering.
Recent excavations in Goher Tippe provide proof that the area has been urbanized for more than 5 thousand years of civilization, and this area is one of the most important historical sites of Iran and has played an important role in cultural flourishing and urban development of the region.
Mazandaran was part of the ancient Hyrcanian Kingdom and former Kingdom of Tapuria. Indigenous people of the region are ethnic Mazanderanis, speaking a Caspian language which most resembles Gilaki and Sangiseri.