Shiraz (شیراز) is the fifth most populated city in Iran and the capital of Fars Province (استان فارس). Shiraz is located in the southwest of Iran on the Rudkhaneye (Roodkhaneye) Khoshk seasonal river (The Dry River) (29°37′N 52°32′E) and has a moderate climate and has been a regional trade center for more than a thousand years.
The earliest reference to the city, as Tirazis, is on Elamite clay tablets dated to 2000 BC. In the 13th century, Shiraz became a leading center of the arts and letters, thanks to the encouragement of its ruler and the presence of many Persian scholars and artists. Shiraz was the capital of Persia during the Zand dynasty (سلسله زندیه) from 1750 until 1781, as well as briefly during the Saffarid (صفاریان) period.
Shiraz is known as the city of poets, wine and flowers. It is also considered by many Iranians to be the city of gardens, due to the many gardens and fruit trees that can be seen in the city like Eram Garden (باغ ارم). Shiraz has had major Jewish and Christian communities. The crafts of Shiraz consist of inlaid mosaic work of triangular design; silver-ware; pile carpet-weaving and weaving of kilim, called gilim (گلیم) and jajim (جاجیم) in the villages and among the tribes.
In Shiraz industries such as cement production, sugar, fertilizers, textile products, wood products, metalwork and rugs dominate. Shiraz also has a major oil refinery and is also a major center for Iran’s electronic industries: 53% of Iran’s electronic investment has been centered in Shiraz.