The fall of Babylonia, and the issuance of the first charter of nations and declaration of human rights by Cyrus the Great.
On 13 October 539 BC, Kourosh the Great, the founder of Iran and the first king of the whole of Iran, conquered Babylonia, whose government, from the time of Nebuchadnezzar, its ruler, followed a policy of cruelty and tyranny towards its people and other nations.
Prof. Blick has mentioned 13 October, with reference to religious books and the encyclopedia of the Christian church and believes it to be accurate. Conquer of the territory of Babylonia Empire by the Iranian army was completed on 29 October of the same year (16 days later) and on that day (29 October 539 BC) the historic declaration of Kourosh, which is named as the first “nations’ charter and human rights” and its clay cylinder is available, was issued. European historians, based on the calculations of chronologists of this continent, have indicated 12 October 539 BC as the day when Kourosh entered Babylon city, capital of the country by the same name, which territory extended upto the Mediterranean (present Lebanon).
The units of Kourosh’ army, after a relatively lengthy siege of Babylon and diverting the Euphrates River from its exit canal of the city, entered the city because the walls of the city were very thick and not penetrable. Babylon was a city in the south of today’s Iraq (abut 90 km to the south of Baqdad). The city of Babylon was the capital of a land which extended upto the Mediterranean, including the present Palestine. It had very strong walls, and according to some documents, the siege of the city by the Iranian army lasted for 16 days. The city of Hella, capital of Babil province of Iraq, is built close to the ruins of Babylon.
Conquer of Babylon happened in the 20th year of establishment of the united (central) government of Iran (in 559 BC, which was also considered as the start of history), and the announcement of Kourosh’ decision to establish the Persian Empire, consisting of the areas where the three Persian, Medes and Parthian tribes settled, and getting rid of its enemies (all three tribes were from the main Aryan clan, who had migrated to the plateaus of Iran and had created local governments for themselves). Kourosh’ father was a Persian and his mother was Medes. 11 or 12 or 13 October 539 BC is known as the day when the wish of Kourosh for establishing the Persian Empire was fulfilled. The 25 century ceremonies were held with 10 years delay, in October 1971, in Fars Province (Takhte Jamshid and Pasargad). The reason for this delay was lack of funds because in those days Iran’s income from oil export was quite small.
It should be noted that the Aryans were the only human clan in the ancient times, who, compared to other nations of their time, were not idol worshipers and enjoyed a well development management system and had lots of love and respect for each other, and respecting laws and ethics was one of their outstanding characteristics.
The contents of a few parts of the 29 October charter of Kourosh the Great (Cyrus Zagrith) is as follows: Nations are free in their customs and religion and local laws will be implemented, as before. The internal independence of the countries will be respected and protected. The only change that will take place is that areas which were previously small and weak countries and always threatened by invasion of other tribes and injustice of their rulers, from now onwards would be part of the great and commonwealth Empire (the united nations), which will guarantee their peace and stability and under its umbrella all sorts of progress, including commerce, would be possible and the rule of law would be guaranteed and no disobedience would occur. The prisoners of war should be set free after the war ends and should return to their countries, and sale and confiscation of their possessions is prevented. The satrap (governor) of each area is responsible for the life, property and respect of each of the subjects of that area, and. . .
Contents of that section of the charter of Kourosh, in which the people of Babylonia are specifically addressed, is as follows: Babylonians should not be concerned. Not a single person will be taken captive. No property of anyone will be confiscated, unless after complete investigation of the crime committed and after the direct approval of Kourosh. The victorious soldiers are not allowed to buy anything without paying its price and should not grab other possessions and will not misbehave. If any breach is observed personal investigation will be carried out. . .
Subsequently, Kourosh set free the Israeli captives, some of whom were under arrest in Babylon since 586 BC and sent them back to their countries at Iran government’s cost, and paid for the rebuilding of their houses, from government treasury. He also gave the orders to rebuild the ports of Tyre and Sidon in Phoenicia (present Lebanon), which were destroyed by the Babylonians, at Iran’s cost. In his attack of 586 BC Nebuchadnezzar II, the Emperor of Babylonia, caused massive destruction to the coastal areas of the Mediterranean and transferred the Israelis who resisted his attacks, to Babylon and used them as captives.
Photo by ali reza_parsi
From Babylon Kourosh sent a message to the Pharaoh of Egypt, who was a super power in those days, saying that on condition that he does not plot against Iran and does not intend to invade Iran, he can rest assured that his land will not be attacked by Iran. Kourosh sent this message after he came to know that the Pharaoh is concerned about the attack of the Iranian army and in this way gave him reassurance.
Kourosh was still in Babylon when he declared that from then onwards the cities of Hamedan, Soosa and Babylon would be capital of Iran in turn to prevent any bias. In his opinion all cities of Iran would have the same value and weight, but after death he wishes to be buried in Pasargad and wherever he dies his body should be transferred to Pasargad. History shows that his will was carefully executed and his tomb – a man who is respected by the world and his name is well taken in religious books – is in Pasargad and the course of time has not brought harm to it.
Therefore, the month of Mehr (October) is an important month for Iranians, for many reasons.